Atmosphere and Climate Studies
Biosphere models need to be capable of simulating the full range of dynamic behavior of terrestrial ecosystems, including vegetation dynamics and carbon cycle. This involves the computation of essential parameters including River discharge, Water use, Ground water, lake levels, Snow cover, Glaciers and ice caps, Permafrost and seasonally-frozen ground, Albedo, Land cover (including vegetation types), Fraction of Absorbed Photo-synthetically Active Radiation (fAPAR), Leaf Area Index (LAI), Biomass, Fire disturbance, Soil moisture.
Hydrological cycle, Dynamics and the Chemistry of the Atmosphere affects Atmospheric. Atmospheric Models involves the computation of essential parameters including Air temperature, Precipitation, Air pressure, Surface radiation budget, Wind speed and direction, Water vapour, Earth radiation budget (including solar irradiance), Upper-air temperature, Wind speed and direction, Water vapour, Cloud properties & Composition of Carbon dioxide, Methane, Ozone, Other long-lived greenhouse gases, Aerosol properties.
National Information System for Climate & Environment Studies (NICES)
Climate change is amongst the most concerning issues being discussed across the world to preserve the planet earth. The 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported an estimated increase of 0.74°C in global mean temperatures from 1906 to 2005. Realising the need, ISRO formulated the National Information System for Climate and Environment Studies (NICES) with the mandate to build an information base for climate change impact assessment and mitigation under the guidance of NICES Programme Management Council (NICES-PMC) with representatives from inter and intra-departmental institutions. Visit NICES